In the previous lesson, we learned that prefixes are small groups of sounds that we add to the beginning of something. A group of sounds that we add to the end of something is called a suffix.
Sanskrit has many different kinds of suffixes. Verb and nominal endings are all suffixes. So are the suffixes that turn verb roots into verb stems:
नी + अ → नय
nī + a → naya
lead → lead
नी + ष्य → नेष्य
nī + ṣya → neṣya
lead → will lead
नी + इ → नायि
nī + i → nāyi
lead → make lead
Sanskrit suffixes can cause many different sound changes. Most commonly, a suffix will make the root's vowel change. Usually, the root's vowel will become a compound vowel, and that vowel might change due to sandhi rules:
नी + अ → ने + अ → नय
nī + a → ne + a → naya
In English, we usually call these kinds of changes vowel strengthening. The idea is that a compound vowel is “stronger” than the simple vowel it comes from. You can see some examples of vowel strengthening in the examples below:
नी + अ → नय
nī + a → naya
नी + ष्य → ने + ष्य → नेष्य
nī + ṣya → ne + ṣya → neṣya
नी + इ → नै + इ → नायि
nī + i → nai + i → nāyi
Since we know Sanskrit sounds well, we can see a connection between ī, e, ai, ay, and āy: ī is the root vowel, e and ai are its compound vowels, and ay and āy appear due to sandhi. This is why it is so important to understand Sanskrit's sounds and sandhi rules.
Root suffixes are suffixes that we add directly to a verb root. Usually, they create nouns and adjectives. There are too many suffixes to list here, but let's consider two examples.
First is the suffix -a. (We add the “-” sign at the beginning to emphasize that this is a suffix.) -a has many functions, but it commonly creates abstract nouns:
विद् → वेद
vid → veda
know → knowledge; one of the four Vedas
जि → जय
ji → jaya
conquer → conquest, victory
युज् → योग
yuj → yoga
yoke, join, unite → yoking, junction, union; yoga
In the last example above, note that j becomes g. The sounds c and j often become k and g when certain suffixes follow them.
Next is the suffix -ta. -ta does not strengthen the root's vowel. When added to a root that means “to X,” this suffix usually means “(has been) X-ed.”
जि → जित
ji → jita
conquer → (has been) conquered
युज् → युक्त
yuj → yukta
yoke, join, unite → (has been) yoked, joined, or united
(yuj becomes yuk due to sandhi)
कृ + त → कृत
kṛ + ta → kṛta
do, make → (has been) done, (has been) made
Can we use prefixes and suffixes together? Yes. For example, let's use the prefix sam- that we used in the previous lesson. In addition to meaning “with” or “together,” this prefix can also mean “completely” or “fully”:
संजि → संजय
saṃji → saṃjaya
completely conquer → complete victory; Sanjay (a name)
Let's try combining sam with the root kṛ above. By a specific grammar rule, this combination becomes saṃskṛ with an extra s. Does saṃskṛ look familiar to you?
संस्कृ + त → संस्कृत
saṃskṛ + ta → saṃskṛta
completely or fully make; refine, perfect → perfected, refined; Sanskrit
Nominal suffixes are suffixes that we usually add to nominal stems. As before, there are too many to list here. But as before, let's consider two examples.
First is the suffix -in. When we add -in to a word that means “X,” we create a word that means “characterized by X”:
योग + इन् → योगिन्
yoga + in → yogin
yoga → characterized by yoga; a yogi
(Note that the -in suffix removes the final -a of yoga.)
Next is the suffix -tva. When we add -tva to a word that means “X,” we create a word that means “X-ness”:
योग + त्व → योगत्व
yoga + tva → yogatva
yoga → “yoga-ness”; the state of yoga
Sanskrit has many different root and nominal suffixes, and we can use these suffixes to create a variety of complex and expressive words.
What does “vowel strengthening” mean?
What is the difference between a root suffix and a nominal suffix?