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"And," "Or," and "Not"

So far, our Sanskrit sentences have been very basic. There are many reasons for this, but one of the more important ones is that we can only deal with one thing at a time: one subject, one object, and one verb. Let's take a look at some new uninflected words that let us chain ideas together. With these new words, we can talk about many subjects, many objects, and many verbs.

ca ("and")

The Sanskrit word for "and" is ca. ca can connect verbs to verbs, nouns to nouns, and phrases to phrases. ca can never start a sentence, and it usually follows the last term in the group.

If we use ca twice, we can emphasize that we're considering both one thing and another:

("or")

The Sanskrit word for "or" is , and it's used just like ca: can connect verbs to verbs, nouns to nouns, and phrases to phrases, but can never start a sentence, and it usually follows the last word in the group.

If we use twice, we can emphasize that we're considering either one thing or another:

na ("not")

The Sanskrit word for "not" is na. na can turn a simple statement into its opposite. na usually goes in front of the verb, but if there is no verb in the sentence, then it sometimes appears at the end of the sentence.

na can also mean just "no," but this meaning is rare.

Devanagari: Consonants 25 - 30

With these five consonants, we have studied all of the consonants that have appeared in Starting Out so far.

देवनागरी
IAST
ḍa
gha
kha
cha
pha

Devanagari is not a perfect script; many of its letters are easily confused with each other. Here are the most commonly confused pairs, as well as some mnemonic devices that might help: